Cineam - Papua is the largest and easternmost province of Indonesia, comprising most of Western New Guinea. Papua is bordered by the nation of Papua New Guinea to the east, and by West Papua province to the west. Since 2002, Papua province has special autonomy status, making it a special region. Its capital is Jayapura. It was formerly called Irian Jaya (and earlier West Irian or Irian Barat) and comprised all of Indonesian New Guinea. In 2002 the current name was adopted and in 2003 West Papua province was created from western parts of Papua province.
Indonesian sovereignty over Papua began in 1969, when Indonesia held a referendum (referred to by the Indonesian Government as the Free Choice Act) on the self-determination of the people of Papua on the basis of an agreement with the United Nations to respect any outcome. Instead of holding a democratic referendum among the general population, Indonesian security forces forcibly forced a small number of tribal elders to join Indonesia; some older people did not realize that a referendum had to be held in advance.
However, agreements with the United Nations are nominally implemented and recognized by the international community despite protests. This led to an intensification of the independence movement among the indigenous West Papua population, which deepened the Papua conflict, which began when the Dutch withdrew from the Indies in 1963. The conflict continued to this day, where Indonesian security forces accused various human rights violations of their suppression of the independence movement , The Indonesian government maintains strict control of the area, prohibits foreign journalists or monitors access rights; those who do so must do it in secret.
In 1999, he proposed dividing the province into three government-controlled sectors, sparking Papua protests. In January 2003, President Megawati Sukarnoputri signed an order to divide Papua into three provinces: Central Irian Jaya (central Irian Jaya), Papua (or East Irian Jaya, east of Irian Jaya) and West Papua (West Irian Jaya).
In February 2003, the installation of the regional government of Gara in West (Irian Jaya) and appointed governor in November was suspended; the government of central Irian Jaya (Irian Jaya Central) was postponed since August 2003 due to protests against domestic violence. An Indonesian court banned the creation of a separate central province of Irian Jaya, which was declared unconstitutional and in violation of the Babwan Special Self-Government Agreement. The previous division into two districts was allowed to stand as a fixed fact.
The province of Papua is one of the three provinces that have gained special autonomy status, the other being Aceh and West Papua. In accordance with Law 21/2001 on Special Self-Government (Law No. 21 of 2001 on Special Self-Government of Papua), the Government of the Province of Papua is authorized in all administrative sectors, with the exception of the five strategic areas of Foreign Affairs, Security, Defense, Monetary and Financial Affairs, Religion and Justice.
The provincial government has the power to issue regional regulations that provide for increased application of special autonomy, including the organization of provincial and city authority in the province. Because of the special autonomy status, Papua province is granted a large amount of private autonomy funds, which can be used for the benefit of indigenous peoples. But the province has a low financial capacity and is heavily dependent on the unconditional transfers and special self-government funds mentioned above, which accounted for about 55 percent of total revenue in 2008.
After obtaining the status of self-government, in order to enable the local population to gain access to the benefits of timber production, the Government of Papua Province issues a number of decrees, which allow: Indigenous logging permits, which enable communities to extract timber in small concessions (250 to 1,000 ha) for one year through community or participatory cooperatives;
Permit for the management of customary forests, permits to extract timber for greater concessions (up to 2000 hectares) for a maximum of 20 years; The logging companies must pay compensation to the communities in addition to all other duties and taxes collected by the national government.