Heart Bypass Surgery is done by a specialist when one or more blood vessels supplying blood to the heart fail to do so, because of some reason. The heart surgeon takes the blood vessels from other areas and makes them bypass the blocked heart artery, so that blood can be provided to the heart.
In spite of a clot/blockage affecting the coronary artery, your blood gets all the required oxygen and nutrients, after a heart bypass surgery is done successfully.
Symptoms and conditions treated through the surgery
Heart Bypass Surgery is a form of heart blockage treatment that is very common in countries including USA where the technique is known as CABG or Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting.
The surgery reduces the risk of heart attacks and most people who have undergone this surgery may live a symptom-free and very healthy life up to a decade or even more.
All symptoms of coronary heart disease including chest pain, breath shortness, irregular heartbeat, and others are treated by heart bypass surgery.
These symptoms occur because of the accumulation of plaque or a waxy substance inside the arteries so that they narrow down or suffer from hardening.
The waxy plaque may also break off and form a clot that clogs flow, and does not allow a proper and normal blood flow to the heart.
Heart Bypass Surgery is performed when medications or less invasive methods including the use of a stent may not provide for a cure to the situation or medical condition.
How does a Heart Bypass Surgery actually work?
The heart surgeon will first remove a blood vessel from any part of your body including the leg, chest, or any other body area.
One end of this blood vessel is attached to the artery below the blocked or clot region and the other end is attached to the “aorta”, the largest blood vessel carrying oxygenated blood from the heart to other parts of the body.
Consequently, a new route is created for the blood to flow and the clot or blockage does not hinder the blood flow any further. The same heart bypass surgery may involve multiple bypass procedures if there are multiple blockages.
Heart Bypass Surgery procedure may last for somewhere around 3 to 6 hours. The patient is given anaesthesia or certain medications due to which he/she is in a deep sleep during the whole operation.
No serious complications occur post-surgery in around 95% cases, and fatality rates post-surgery are quite low at 1 to 2%.
Elective surgery has a lower risk when compared to emergency surgery. Those who have already undergone bypass surgery before, have a serious disease like diabetes and are over 70 years of age also have a greater risk towards complications.
Common Types of Heart Bypass Surgery
The two common types of Heart Bypass Surgery include the “on pump” and “off-pump” surgery.
On-pump surgery is the use of a heart-lung machine during the surgery so that the heart stops and the machine breathes for the body.
The use of the machine provides for an easier surgical procedure for the surgeons. In the off-pump surgery, the hearts keep on pumping the blood.
How to Prepare
Any and all medications containing Aspirin should not be taken by the patient from at least three days before the bypass surgery.
The patient should stop smoking. They should also avoid eating or drinking anything since the midnight of the day before the surgery.
The patients are usually kept in an ICU for a few hours and days after the surgery, and their blood pressure and heart rate are monitored through the use of machines.
They may also have a tube inserted in their mouth for breathing. They are subsequently transferred to the other hospital rooms and stay there for around five days until they are discharged.
It is important for the patient to have someone at home to care for him/her as it may not resume with normal life activities after the surgery, for some time.
The medical team, surgeon, and therapy providers provide to the patients all the relevant guidelines regarding pre and post bypass surgery care and the precautions involved.
Leading and best heart hospitals in India provides Heart Bypass Surgery under the expert care and guidance of heart surgeons at quite an affordable cost.